Antioxidant  (Whitney et al., 2014, p.358)

Signs of Deficiency
Spinal cord and retina dysfunction, loss of muscle coordination and reflexes, impaired speech and vision and red blood cell breakage (Whitney et al., 2014, p. 357-358)

Synergistic Nutrients
Vitamin A, B2, B6, B12, C, D, K, copper, cysteine, folic acid, glutathione, iron, lipoic acid, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, sodium and zinc (Osiecki, 2010, p. 79).

Recommended Dietary Intake (per day)
Men                                                             10 mg/day
Women                                                    7 mg/day
Pregnancy 19-50 years               7 mg/day
Pregnancy 14-18 years                8 mg/day

 Upper Limits (per day)
Adults                                                      300 mg/day
Pregnancy                                            300 mg/day
(Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, 2015)

Dietary Sources Value per 100 g
Tahini, sesame seed pulp 211 mg
Oil, sunflower 51.61 mg
Seed, sunflower 39.13 mg
Chilli (chili), dried, ground 38.14 mg
Nut, almond, with skin, raw, unsalted 31.42 mg
Oil, rice bran 29.72 mg
Paprika, dry powder 29.1 mg
Curry powder 25.24 mg
Oil, almond 24.47 mg
Nut, almond meal 22.62 mg
Oil, olive 19.96 mg
Oregano, dried 18.26 mg
Oil, blend of polyunsaturated vegetable oils 17.66 mg
Nut, hazelnut, raw, unsalted 16 mg
Nut, pine, raw, unsalted 12.94 mg

(Food Standards Australia New Zealand, 2015)


Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. (2017). Nutrients. Retrieved 5 February, 2019, from

Food Standards Australia New Zealand. (2019). Minerals. Retrieved 5 February, 2019, from 

Osiecki, H. (2010). The Nutrient Bible (9th Ed.). AG Publishing: Australia

Whitney, E., Rolfes, S.R., Crowe, T., Cameron-Smith, S. and Walsh, A. (2014). Understanding Nutrition: Australia and New Zealand Edition (2nd Ed.). South Melbourne, Australia: Cengage Learning.