A cofactor in collagen and thyroxine formation
Strengthen infection resistance
Help in iron absorption
Amino acid metabolism
(Whitney et al., 2014, p. 329 and 332)

Signs of Deficiency
Swollen and bleeding gums, pinpoint haemorrhages, muscles degeneration, rough brown scaly and dry skin, poor wound healing, bone falters, loosened teeth, anaemia, infection, hysteria, depression, internal bleeding, blotchy bruises and join pain (Whitney et al.,2014, p.331-332)

Synergistic Nutrients
Vitamin A, B5, B6, B12, C, E, calcium, ccopper, folate, iron, lipoic acid, lysine, magnesium, manganese, methionine, phosphorus, selenium and zinc (Osiecki, 2010, p. 67).

Recommended Dietary Intake (per day)
Adults                                                      45 mg
Pregnancy > 18 years                  60 mg
Pregnancy 14-18 years               55 mg

 Upper Limits (per day) None established but 1000 mg/day is a prudent limit
(Food Standards Australia New Zealand, 2015)

Dietary Sources Value per 100 g
Lime, native, fruit 347 mg
Seaweed, nori, dried 290 mg
Guava, Hawaiian, raw 243 mg
Chilli (chili), red, raw 201 mg
Capsicum, red, fresh, raw 172 mg
Parsley, continental, fresh, raw 132 mg
Lemon peel, raw 129 mg
Chilli (chili), green, raw 128 mg
Chilli (chili), green, fried, no added fat 121 mg
Kale, raw 120 mg
Broccoli, fresh, baked, no added fat 110 mg
Brussels sprout, fresh, raw 110 mg
Kiwifruit, gold, peeled, raw 110 mg


Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. (2017). Nutrients. Retrieved 29 January, 2019, from

Food Standards Australia New Zealand. (2019). Minerals. Retrieved 29 January, 2019, from 

Osiecki, H. (2010). The Nutrient Bible (9th Ed.). AG Publishing: Australia

Whitney, E., Rolfes, S.R., Crowe, T., Cameron-Smith, S. and Walsh, A. (2014). Understanding Nutrition: Australia and New Zealand Edition (2nd Ed.). South Melbourne, Australia: Cengage Learning.