Part of coenzyme tetrahydrofolate (THF) that converts vitamin B1 to its coenzyme forms and assists the DNA synthesise required for rapidly growing cells
Part of THF and dihydrofolate (DHF) that is used in DNA synthesis
(Whitney et. al., 2014, p. 315 and 320)

Signs of Deficiency
Anaemia, smooth red tongue, mental confusion, fatigue, irritability, headache, shortness of breath, elevated homocysteine (Whitney et. al., 2014, p.320)

Synergistic Nutrients
Vitamin B2, B3, B5, B6, B12 C, biopterin, biotin, copper, iron, magnesium, methionine, serine and zinc  (Osiecki, 2010, p. 90).

Recommended Dietary Intake (per day)
Adults                                                         400 µg
Pregnancy                                               600 µg

 Upper Limits (per day)
Adults                                                         1000 µg
Pregnancy 19-50 years                1000 µg
Pregnancy 14-18 years                 800 µg
(Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, 2017)

Dietary Sources Value per 100 g
Chicken, liver, raw 1450 ug
Seaweed, nori, dried 1400 ug
Lamb, liver, grilled, no added fat 680 ug
Bean, mung, whole, dried, uncooked 625 ug
Cabbage, Chinese flowering, raw 425 ug
Bean, broad, dried 423 ug
Bean, lima, dried 395 ug
Bean, red kidney, dried 394 ug
Bean, haricot, dried 364 ug
Lupin, dehulled, splits, uncooked 350 ug
Lime, native, fruit 347 ug
Rosemary, dried 307 ug
Watercress, raw 280 ug
Cabbage, mustard, raw 278 ug

(Food Standards Australia New Zealand, 2019)


Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. (2017). Nutrients. Retrieved 28 January, 2019, from

Food Standards Australia New Zealand. (2019). Minerals. Retrieved 28 January, 2019, from 

Osiecki, H. (2010). The Nutrient Bible (9th Ed.). AG Publishing: Australia

Whitney, E., Rolfes, S.R., Crowe, T., Cameron-Smith, S. and Walsh, A. (2014). Understanding Nutrition: Australia and New Zealand Edition (2nd Ed.). South Melbourne, Australia: Cengage Learning.