Methionine regeneration
DNA and RNA synthesis
Maintain sheath of nerve fibres and promote their normal growth
Help Bone cell activity and metabolism
Part of coenzymes methylcobalaminand deoxyadenosylcobalamin used in the synthesis of new cell
Reform folate coenzyme
Help some fatty acid and amino acid break down
(Whitney et. al., 2014, p. 319-312 and 323)

Signs of Deficiency
Anaemia, fatigue, paralysis, sore tongue, loss of appetite and constipation(Whitney et. al., 2014, p. 320 and 323).

Synergistic Nutrients
Vitamin A, B1, B2, B5, B6, C, E, biotin, calcium, cobalt, copper, folate, iron, methionine, N-acetyl cysteine, omega-3 fatty acids, phosphate and selenium (Osiecki, 2010, p. 51).

Recommended Dietary Intake (per day)
Adults                                         2.4 µg
Pregnancy                              2.6 µg

Upper Limits  (per day) None established
(Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, 2017)

Dietary Sources Value per 100 g
Lamb, liver, grilled, no added fat 76.5 ug
Mussel, blue, steamed 20 ug
Octopus, boiled, no added fat 17.8 ug
Chicken, liver, raw 16.6 ug
Abalone 15 ug
Oyster 15 ug
Sardine, Australian, whole, raw 8.3 ug
Sprat, blue, wild caught, flesh, skin & bones, fried, no added fat 7.4 ug
Mullet, yelloweye, fillet, baked, no added fat 6 ug
Egg, chicken, yolk, raw 4 ug
Beef, mince, lower fat, stir-fried, no added fat 3.6 ug
Snapper, fillet, steamed, no added fat 3.3 ug
Lamb, roasting piece, shoulder, lean, roasted, no added fat 3.2 ug
Beef, steak, boneless, fillet or tenderloin, lean, grilled, no added fat 3 ug

(Food Standards Australia New Zealand, 2019)


Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. (2017). Nutrients. Retrieved 28 January, 2019, from

Food Standards Australia New Zealand. (2019). Minerals. Retrieved 28 January, 2019, from 

Osiecki, H. (2010). The Nutrient Bible (9th Ed.). AG Publishing: Australia

Whitney, E., Rolfes, S.R., Crowe, T., Cameron-Smith, S. and Walsh, A. (2014). Understanding Nutrition: Australia and New Zealand Edition (2nd Ed.). South Melbourne, Australia: Cengage Learning.