VITAMIN E

Functions
Antioxidant  (Whitney et al., 2014, p.358)

Signs of Deficiency
Spinal cord and retina dysfunction, loss of muscle coordination and reflexes, impaired speech and vision and red blood cell breakage (Whitney et al., 2014, p. 357-358)

Synergistic Nutrients
Vitamin A, B2, B6, B12, C, D, K, copper, cysteine, folic acid, glutathione, iron, lipoic acid, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, sodium and zinc (Osiecki, 2010, p. 79).

Recommended Dietary Intake (per day)
Men                                                             10 mg/day
Women                                                    7 mg/day
Pregnancy 19-50 years               7 mg/day
Pregnancy 14-18 years                8 mg/day

 Upper Limits (per day)
Adults                                                      300 mg/day
Pregnancy                                            300 mg/day
(Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, 2015)

Dietary Sources Value per 100 g
Tahini, sesame seed pulp 211 mg
Oil, sunflower 51.61 mg
Seed, sunflower 39.13 mg
Chilli (chili), dried, ground 38.14 mg
Nut, almond, with skin, raw, unsalted 31.42 mg
Oil, rice bran 29.72 mg
Paprika, dry powder 29.1 mg
Curry powder 25.24 mg
Oil, almond 24.47 mg
Nut, almond meal 22.62 mg
Oil, olive 19.96 mg
Oregano, dried 18.26 mg
Oil, blend of polyunsaturated vegetable oils 17.66 mg
Nut, hazelnut, raw, unsalted 16 mg
Nut, pine, raw, unsalted 12.94 mg

(Food Standards Australia New Zealand, 2015)

References

Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. (2017). Nutrients. Retrieved 5 February, 2019, from https://www.nrv.gov.au/nutrients

Food Standards Australia New Zealand. (2019). Minerals. Retrieved 5 February, 2019, from           http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/science/monitoringnutrients/nutrientables/nuttab/pages/default.aspxhttp://archive.foodstandards.gov.au/consumerinformation/nuttab2010/nuttab2010onlinesearchabledatabase/onlineversion_code.cfm?&action=nutrientList

Osiecki, H. (2010). The Nutrient Bible (9th Ed.). AG Publishing: Australia

Whitney, E., Rolfes, S.R., Crowe, T., Cameron-Smith, S. and Walsh, A. (2014). Understanding Nutrition: Australia and New Zealand Edition (2nd Ed.). South Melbourne, Australia: Cengage Learning.

VITAMIN C

Functions
A cofactor in collagen and thyroxine formation
Antioxidant
Strengthen infection resistance
Help in iron absorption
Amino acid metabolism
(Whitney et al., 2014, p. 329 and 332)

Signs of Deficiency
Swollen and bleeding gums, pinpoint haemorrhages, muscles degeneration, rough brown scaly and dry skin, poor wound healing, bone falters, loosened teeth, anaemia, infection, hysteria, depression, internal bleeding, blotchy bruises and join pain (Whitney et al.,2014, p.331-332)

Synergistic Nutrients
Vitamin A, B5, B6, B12, C, E, calcium, ccopper, folate, iron, lipoic acid, lysine, magnesium, manganese, methionine, phosphorus, selenium and zinc (Osiecki, 2010, p. 67).

Recommended Dietary Intake (per day)
Adults                                                      45 mg
Pregnancy > 18 years                  60 mg
Pregnancy 14-18 years               55 mg

 Upper Limits (per day) None established but 1000 mg/day is a prudent limit
(Food Standards Australia New Zealand, 2015)

Dietary Sources Value per 100 g
Lime, native, fruit 347 mg
Seaweed, nori, dried 290 mg
Guava, Hawaiian, raw 243 mg
Chilli (chili), red, raw 201 mg
Capsicum, red, fresh, raw 172 mg
Parsley, continental, fresh, raw 132 mg
Lemon peel, raw 129 mg
Chilli (chili), green, raw 128 mg
Chilli (chili), green, fried, no added fat 121 mg
Kale, raw 120 mg
Broccoli, fresh, baked, no added fat 110 mg
Brussels sprout, fresh, raw 110 mg
Kiwifruit, gold, peeled, raw 110 mg

References

Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. (2017). Nutrients. Retrieved 29 January, 2019, from https://www.nrv.gov.au/nutrients

Food Standards Australia New Zealand. (2019). Minerals. Retrieved 29 January, 2019, from           http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/science/monitoringnutrients/nutrientables/nuttab/pages/default.aspxhttp://archive.foodstandards.gov.au/consumerinformation/nuttab2010/nuttab2010onlinesearchabledatabase/onlineversion_code.cfm?&action=nutrientList

Osiecki, H. (2010). The Nutrient Bible (9th Ed.). AG Publishing: Australia

Whitney, E., Rolfes, S.R., Crowe, T., Cameron-Smith, S. and Walsh, A. (2014). Understanding Nutrition: Australia and New Zealand Edition (2nd Ed.). South Melbourne, Australia: Cengage Learning.

FOLATE (B9)

Functions
Part of coenzyme tetrahydrofolate (THF) that converts vitamin B1 to its coenzyme forms and assists the DNA synthesise required for rapidly growing cells
Part of THF and dihydrofolate (DHF) that is used in DNA synthesis
(Whitney et. al., 2014, p. 315 and 320)

Signs of Deficiency
Anaemia, smooth red tongue, mental confusion, fatigue, irritability, headache, shortness of breath, elevated homocysteine (Whitney et. al., 2014, p.320)

Synergistic Nutrients
Vitamin B2, B3, B5, B6, B12 C, biopterin, biotin, copper, iron, magnesium, methionine, serine and zinc  (Osiecki, 2010, p. 90).

Recommended Dietary Intake (per day)
Adults                                                         400 µg
Pregnancy                                               600 µg

 Upper Limits (per day)
Adults                                                         1000 µg
Pregnancy 19-50 years                1000 µg
Pregnancy 14-18 years                 800 µg
(Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, 2017)

Dietary Sources Value per 100 g
Chicken, liver, raw 1450 ug
Seaweed, nori, dried 1400 ug
Lamb, liver, grilled, no added fat 680 ug
Bean, mung, whole, dried, uncooked 625 ug
Cabbage, Chinese flowering, raw 425 ug
Bean, broad, dried 423 ug
Bean, lima, dried 395 ug
Bean, red kidney, dried 394 ug
Bean, haricot, dried 364 ug
Lupin, dehulled, splits, uncooked 350 ug
Lime, native, fruit 347 ug
Rosemary, dried 307 ug
Watercress, raw 280 ug
Cabbage, mustard, raw 278 ug

(Food Standards Australia New Zealand, 2019)

References

Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. (2017). Nutrients. Retrieved 28 January, 2019, from https://www.nrv.gov.au/nutrients

Food Standards Australia New Zealand. (2019). Minerals. Retrieved 28 January, 2019, from           http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/science/monitoringnutrients/nutrientables/nuttab/pages/default.aspxhttp://archive.foodstandards.gov.au/consumerinformation/nuttab2010/nuttab2010onlinesearchabledatabase/onlineversion_code.cfm?&action=nutrientList

Osiecki, H. (2010). The Nutrient Bible (9th Ed.). AG Publishing: Australia

Whitney, E., Rolfes, S.R., Crowe, T., Cameron-Smith, S. and Walsh, A. (2014). Understanding Nutrition: Australia and New Zealand Edition (2nd Ed.). South Melbourne, Australia: Cengage Learning.

COBALAMIN (B12)

Functions
Methionine regeneration
DNA and RNA synthesis
Maintain sheath of nerve fibres and promote their normal growth
Help Bone cell activity and metabolism
Part of coenzymes methylcobalaminand deoxyadenosylcobalamin used in the synthesis of new cell
Reform folate coenzyme
Help some fatty acid and amino acid break down
(Whitney et. al., 2014, p. 319-312 and 323)

Signs of Deficiency
Anaemia, fatigue, paralysis, sore tongue, loss of appetite and constipation(Whitney et. al., 2014, p. 320 and 323).

Synergistic Nutrients
Vitamin A, B1, B2, B5, B6, C, E, biotin, calcium, cobalt, copper, folate, iron, methionine, N-acetyl cysteine, omega-3 fatty acids, phosphate and selenium (Osiecki, 2010, p. 51).

Recommended Dietary Intake (per day)
Adults                                         2.4 µg
Pregnancy                              2.6 µg

Upper Limits  (per day) None established
(Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, 2017)

Dietary Sources Value per 100 g
Lamb, liver, grilled, no added fat 76.5 ug
Mussel, blue, steamed 20 ug
Octopus, boiled, no added fat 17.8 ug
Chicken, liver, raw 16.6 ug
Abalone 15 ug
Oyster 15 ug
Sardine, Australian, whole, raw 8.3 ug
Sprat, blue, wild caught, flesh, skin & bones, fried, no added fat 7.4 ug
Mullet, yelloweye, fillet, baked, no added fat 6 ug
Egg, chicken, yolk, raw 4 ug
Beef, mince, lower fat, stir-fried, no added fat 3.6 ug
Snapper, fillet, steamed, no added fat 3.3 ug
Lamb, roasting piece, shoulder, lean, roasted, no added fat 3.2 ug
Beef, steak, boneless, fillet or tenderloin, lean, grilled, no added fat 3 ug

(Food Standards Australia New Zealand, 2019)

References

Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. (2017). Nutrients. Retrieved 28 January, 2019, from https://www.nrv.gov.au/nutrients

Food Standards Australia New Zealand. (2019). Minerals. Retrieved 28 January, 2019, from           http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/science/monitoringnutrients/nutrientables/nuttab/pages/default.aspxhttp://archive.foodstandards.gov.au/consumerinformation/nuttab2010/nuttab2010onlinesearchabledatabase/onlineversion_code.cfm?&action=nutrientList

Osiecki, H. (2010). The Nutrient Bible (9th Ed.). AG Publishing: Australia

Whitney, E., Rolfes, S.R., Crowe, T., Cameron-Smith, S. and Walsh, A. (2014). Understanding Nutrition: Australia and New Zealand Edition (2nd Ed.). South Melbourne, Australia: Cengage Learning.