Structure of connective tissue
Promote wound healing
Support bone growth

Signs of Deficiency
Decrease bone matrix, stretch mark and poor hair quality in pregnancy, arthrosclerosis development and dry and elasticity lose in skin
(Blackmores, 2012, p. 114-115)

Synergistic Nutrients
Copper, Vitamin D, C and K, manganese, magnesium and zinc (Osiecki, 2010, p. 204).

Average Daily Intake (per day)            20-50 mg
(Blackmores, 2012, p. 114)

 Dietary Sources
All plants particularly in stalks and seed husks, root vegetables and green leafy vegetables, oats, barley, brown rice, wholegrains, bamboo, hosetail, nettles (Blackmores, 2012, p. 114), alpha alpha, Bell’s pepper, mineral water, mussels and raisins (Osiecki, 2010, p. 203)


Blackmores (2012). Human Physiology: from Cells to Systems (8th Ed.).          Balgowlah, New South Wales, Australia: Blackmores Professional

Osiecki, H. (2010). The Nutrient Bible (9th Ed.). AG Publishing: Australia


Part of bone structure – frame that holds the body upright and attachment points for muscle
Calcium bank – source of the mineral when there is a drop in blood calcium
Involve in muscle contraction and relaxation, nerve functioning, blood clotting and blood pressure
(Whitney et. al., 2014, p. 388 and 395)

Signs of Deficiency
Stunted growth in children and osteoporosis in adults (Whitney et. al.,  2014, p. 395)

Synergistic Nutrients
Vitamin A, C, E, D, K, arginine, boron, carnosine, chromium, copper, lysine, magnesium, methionine, phosphorus, selenium (Osiecki, 2010, p. 165)

Recommended Dietary Intake (per day)
Men 19-70 years                            1,000 mg
Men > 70 years                                1,100 mg
Women 19-50 years                    1,000 mg
Women > 50 years                        1,300 mg
Pregnancy 14-18 years              1,300 mg
Pregnancy 19-50 years            1,000 mg

Upper Limits (per day)
Adults or Pregnancy                    2,500 mg
(Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, 2017)

Dietary Sources mg per 100 g
Cheese, parmesan, finely grated 1,121
Sardine, canned in water, no added salt, drained 540
Salmon, Australian, canned in brine, drained 352
Tahini, sesame seed pulp 330
Tofu (soy bean curd), firm, as purchased 320
Nut, almond, with skin 250
Fig, dried 200
Bean, soya, dried 180
Anchovy, canned in oil, drained 167
Snapper, flesh, grilled or barbecued, brushed with olive oil 163
Cod, Atlantic, dried, salted 160
Crabmeat, canned in brine, drained 154
Bean, haricot, dried 150
Nut, brazil, raw or blanched 150
Snapper, flesh, raw 123
Egg, chicken, yolk, hard-boiled 115
Seed, sunflower 100
Bean, red kidney, dried 95
Nut, pistachio, unsalted 90

(Food Standards Australia New Zealand, 2019)


Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. (2017). Nutrients. Retrieved 21 January, 2019, from

Food Standards Australia New Zealand. (2019). Minerals. Retrieved 21 January, 2019, from 

Osiecki, H. (2010). The Nutrient Bible (9th Ed.). AG Publishing: Australia

Whitney, E., Rolfes, S.R., Crowe, T., Cameron-Smith, S. and Walsh, A. (2014). Understanding Nutrition: Australia and New Zealand Edition (2nd Ed.). South Melbourne, Australia: Cengage Learning.